英语学科战疫训练特辑

2020-02-11 10:09:05   来源:原创  作者:英语中心教研室  点击数:111


2020年的春节,新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情牵动着全国人民的心,疫情的防控也成为了万众关注的焦点。在这一关键期,希望同学们明白,决定一个人高度的往往不是起点,而是拐点。我们需要给时光以生命,而不只是给生命以时光。同时,也希望同学们充分利用学校资源,师生共同努力,共同成长,共克时艰。

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I.阅读理解(原创)

导读:本文介绍了新型冠状病毒肺炎的起因、症状、传播途径,以及其他几类致命的冠状病毒。
Anew coronavirus, a cousin of the SARS virus, has infected more than 10000people since the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December.Scientist Leo Poon, who first decoded the virus, thinks it likelystarted in an animal and spread to humans.
 "What we know is that it causespneumonia (肺炎)and then doesn't respond to antibiotic(抗生素) treatment, which is not surprising, butthen in terms of mortality (死亡率), SARS kills 10% of the individuals,"Poon, a virologist(病毒学家)at the School of Public Health at The University of Hong Kong, said.
The World Health Organization offeredguidance to countries on how they can prepare for it, including how tomonitor for the sick and how to treat patients.
Hereare seven things you should know about a coronavirus.
Coronaviruses are a large group of virusesthat are common among animals. In rare cases, they are what scientists callzoonotic[ˌzəʊəˈnəʊtɪk](人畜共患病), meaningthey can be transmitted from animals to humans, according to the USCenters for Disease Control and Prevention.
The viruses can make people sick, usuallywith a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness(上呼吸道疾病), similar to a common cold. Coronavirussymptoms include a runny nose, cough, sore throat, possibly a headache andmaybe a fever, which can last for a couple of days.
For those with a weakened immune system,the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause alower, and much more serious, respiratory tract illness like a pneumonia orbronchitis [brɒŋˈkaɪtɪs](支气管炎).
There are a handful of human coronavirusesthat are known to be deadly.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome(中东呼吸综合征), alsoknown as the MERS virus, was first reported in the Middle East in 2012 and alsocauses respiratory problems, but those symptoms are muchmore severe. Three tofour out of every 10 patients infected with MERS died, according to theCDC.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome(严重急性呼吸综合征), alsoknown as SARS, is the other coronavirus that can cause more severe symptoms. Firstidentified in the Guangdong province in southern China, accordingto the WHO, it causes respiratory problems but can also cause diarrhea [ˌdaɪəˈriə](腹泻), fatigue (疲劳),shortness of breath, respiratory distress (呼吸窘迫) and kidney failure (肾衰).Depending on the patient's age, the death rate with SARS ranged from0-50% of the cases, with older people being the most vulnerable(易受伤害的).
Viruses can spread from human contactwith animals. Scientists think MERS started in camels, according tothe WHO. With SARS, scientists suspected civet cats (狸猫) wereto blame.
Whenit comes to human-to-human transmission of theviruses, often it happens when someone comes into contact with theinfected person's secretions [sɪˈkriːʃ(ə)n](分泌物).
Depending on how virulent [ˈvɪrələnt] (有毒的)the virus is, a cough, sneeze or handshake could 
causeexposure. The virus can also be transmitted bytouching something an infected person has touched and then touching your mouth,nose or eyes. Caregivers (护理人员) can sometimes be exposed byhandling a patient's waste, according to the CDC.
1.       Which of thefollowing can explain the underlined word in paragraph 1 ?
A. to find or discover sth.
B.  to put sth. into acode
C. to change sth. into ordinary language
D. to change sth. into a form that can be processed 
2.       What are the symptomsof the novel Coronavirus ?
A. much more severe upper respiratory tract illness
B. a runny nose, cough, sore throat, possibly a headache andmaybe a fever
C. diarrhea , fatigue, shortness of breath, respiratorydistress and kidney failure (肾衰)
D. a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness,similar to a common cold.
3.       How do the Virusesspread?
A. Viruses can spread from human contact with animals.
B. the viruses can transmit from human to human
C. The viruses can be transmit by touching sth polluted anddroplet transmission.
D. The viruses can betransmitted by touching something an infected person has touched.

 

II.七选五(外来题)

导读:面临新型冠状病毒挑战,如何保护自己及他人?

How to keepyourself safe from new virus?

After a new-type coronavirus was detected in viralpneumonia cases in Central China's Wuhan city a month ago, more cases have beenreported in recent days. _____1_____:

1. Wear masks outdoors

●Wearing a mask is one of the most effective ways toprotect you from getting infected.

●Make sure to wear it properly by tightening up thenose clip and pulling the bottom of it over your chin.

●_____2_____, a mask is also needed to prevent you fromspreading germs to others.

2. Cover your coughs and sneeze with tissue(纸巾)

Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you coughor sneeze, or you can cough or sneeze into your sleeve, but avoid covering withyour hands directly.

3. _____3_____ 

Wash your hands with soap and running water thoroughlyfor at least 15 seconds.

● Before eating and after using the toilet

● After returning home

● After touching trash or garbage

● After contacting with animals or handling animalwastes

4. Strengthen your immune system and exerciseregularly

● Exercise regularly is one of the most importantways to help you stay away from catching any infections.

● Make sure that shared spaces have good air flowand avoid going to crowded places such as hospitals, railway stations andairports. _____4_____.

● Seek prompt(及时的) medical attention if you have symptoms of fever andrespiratory infection.

● Avoid close contact with people who have flu orcold-like symptoms.

●_____5_____. Avoid contact with wild animals or farmedlivestock without any protection.

A. If your hands are not visibly dirty

B. Eat thoroughly cooked meat and eggs

C. Wash your hands frequently and properly

D. Protect yourself and others from getting sick

E. Wear a mask if transport or movement isnecessary

F. If you’re not feeling well or have symptoms of fever

G. To prevent catching the infection, here’s what you can do 

英语学科战疫训练特辑

III.语法填空(一)(外来题)

导读:每个成为吹哨人的人,一定都知道自己未来将要面对的命运,但是他们还是选择了站了出来,让更多应该知道真相的人知道了真相。
以此文沉痛哀悼和纪念一位伟大的医生!
We are deeply saddened by thepassing of Dr. Li Wenliang.
Dr. Li Wenliang, one of the eight“whistleblowers” who tried _____1_____ (warn) fellow medics(医师) of _____2_____ novel coronavirus when it firstemerged(出现) in Wuhan, diedearly on Friday. Wuhan Central Hospital _____3_____ (confirm) in a statementreleased on _____4_____ (it) official Weibo account. “Our hospital’sophthalmologist Li Wenliang was _____5_____ (unfortunate) infected withcoronavirus during his work in the fight _____6_____ the coronavirus epidemic,”the statement read, _____7_____ (add) “He died at 2:58 a.m. on February 7 afterattempts to resuscitate were unsuccessful.” 
“After emergency treatment, LiWenliang passed away,” the Central Hospital of Wuhan announced on Weibo, China’s version of Twitter. “We deeply regret and mourn Li’s _____8_____ (die).”
Dr. Li is a hero, _____9_____will live in our hearts forever. May God bless all the courageous doctors and_____10_____ (nurse) fighting on the front line.

 

 

英语学科战疫训练特辑

英语学科战疫训练特辑

IV.语法填空(二)(原创)

导读:(医学发现)发现三种可抑制新型冠状病毒的药物

Chineseresearchers have found three ___1___(exist)drugs with ___2___(fair)good inhibitory(抑制的) effects on the novel(新颖的)coronavirus  ___3___thecellular(细胞的) level, a local newspaper has reported. The threedrugs are Remdesivir, Chloroquine and Ritonavir. They are now under relevant ___4___ (procedure)to gain approval for ___5___ (clinic)use, said Hubei Daily ___6___ Wednesday. The ___7___(discover) was jointly made by researchers from theAcademy of Military Medical Sciences and the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) under the Chinese Academy ofSciences (CAS).

 

V.语法填空(三)(原创)

导读:起源于武汉的新型冠状病毒与季节性流感有相似之处,然而区分二者对于抑制新型冠状病毒的传播及其重要。
The novel coronavirus(冠状病毒), which____1____(originate)in the Chinese city of Wuhan and has now spread to 12countries, has much in common ____2___ seasonal flu. They are both viralinfections, share similar symptoms and crucially(关键地) can spread from human to human. In themidst of flu season in much of the northern hemisphere, ____3___(tell) thedifference between the two will be vital in stopping its spread.
Human coronaviruses, of which there are four, can causerespiratory (呼吸道)infectionssimilar to flu: while many symptoms are mild, both can lead to pneumonia(肺炎) andbecome lethal(致命的). ___4___, the novel coronavirus is moreserious than __5__ "typical influenza infection,(流感)"says Ian Jones, a professor of virology at the University of Reading.
"Thisvirus appears to go___6___(far) down into the lungs than would generally be thecase. Therefore, it will give you___7___ (symptom) of pneumonia(肺炎): thelungs becoming flooded, they don't function very well and the patient gets intobreathing difficulty."
Whilethe mortality rates and symptoms of flu and novel coronavirus may end up beingsimilar, humans' ability ___8____(fight) off the viruses differs greatly.
Humanshave naturally built up antibodies to seasonal flu and annual vaccines____9____(develop) to fight it. During a pandemic(流行病), whichthe new coronavirus has the potential to become, "there is no immunity(免疫性) in the population so you have potentialfor a ___10___(globe) spread," warns Jones.
 
VI.语法填空(四)(原创)
导读:为了应对由新型冠状病毒引起的焦虑与心理问题,国家卫生健康委员会要求省级区域联合心理援助资源,并标准化这些公共服务。
1_______(address)anxiety and mental health concerns caused by the novel coronavirus outbreak,the National Health Commission has required provincial-level regions to combine2.______(psychology) support resources and standardize such public services.
"Colleges3.____ (equip) with psychological centers are also encouraged to step upintervention and counseling(建议) to students 4.___ may be affected by thedisease's spread," said Wang Bin, deputy director of the commission'sdisease control and 5.___(prevent) bureau(局,办事处) at a news conference held onMonday.
Daysof intensive(密集的)work had exhausted him and caused him to lose 6.____ temper for a brief moment.The doctor quickly collected himself and went back to 7. ______(treat)patients.
YangFude, Party secretary of the Beijing Huilongguan Hospital, said many medicalworkers and personnel 8.____charge of registering and screening residents inneighborhoods 9.______(face) tremendous pressure and are pushing their mentaland physical 10____(limit). 
 
VII.短文改错(原创)
导读:世界卫生组织宣布,抗生素对于抗病毒无效,但抗生素的使用可以应对新型冠状病毒患者可能并发的细菌感染。
"Antibiotics do not work againstviruses, only bacteria," the WHO said on it’s official website. However,if the patient is hospitalized for the virus, he may accept antibiotics since"bacterial co-infection is possible," the organization added. Up tonow, there are no specific medicine for preventing or treating the virus, theWHO said, adding that it is working with partners to help accelerate relatingresearch and development work. "People of all ages" can be infectedwith the novel coronavirus, elder people and people with pre-existing medicalconditions are more like to suffer, the WHO said. The organization advisedpeople to wash hands after contacting with pets, which can help protect them against"various common bacteria that can pass among pets and humans." Chinesehealth authorities said on Monday that it received reports of 2,829 newconfirmed cases of novel coronavirus infection and 57 death on Sunday.

 

VIII.书面表达

导读:无论你身处哪里,这是全世界、全人类的战役。
假如你是李华,给留在衡水过寒假的留学生朋友Jack写一封电子邮件, 告知其目前新型冠状病毒肺炎的形势, 请他注意防护。要点如下:
1 告知疫情现状;
2注意防护,如减少外出,带口罩外出,勤洗手等。
3表达战胜疫情的信心。
注意:1、可适当增加细节, 使行文连贯;
2、100词左右。



英语学科战疫训练特辑

1.  CNN关于新型冠状病毒疫苗的最新报道 (疫情发展变化中)

本文话题词汇:
vaccine 疫苗     
virus 病毒    
infect 传染;使感染
clinical trial  临床试验            
coronavirus  冠状病毒
influenza 流行性感冒 
health care worker  医护人员  
infected patient  受感染的病人  
genetic code  基因序列
背景知识
coronavirus 冠状病毒,这样称呼的原因是这种病毒在显微镜下呈冠状,像一顶王冠。而 “王冠”一词在拉丁语中是corona 。按西方学术概念名称使用拉丁语(或古希腊语)的习惯,人们将corona与virus 放在一起构成合成词coronavirus,即“冠状病毒”。(virus 一词也来自拉丁语)
 
(CNN) — Ateam of scientists in Texas, New York and China are at work on a vaccineagainst the new virus that has infected lots of people worldwide. The NationalInstitutes of Health (NIH) is also working on a vaccine. It will take a fewmonths until the first phase of the clinical trials get underway.
来自德克萨斯州、纽约和中国的一组科学家正在研制疫苗,以对抗这种已感染世界上很多人的新型病毒。美国国立卫生研究院(简称NIH)也在着手研制疫苗。到第一阶段的临床试验开始将需要几个月的时间。
 
This newvirus is a coronavirus, which is the same family as the virus that causes SARS,or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, which was first reported in Asia in 2002and killed more than 700 people. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS,which has killed more than 800 people since 2012, is also caused by a coronavirus. 
这种新型病毒是一种冠状病毒,与引起SARS(重症急性呼吸系统综合征)的病毒属于同一科。SARS于2002年在亚洲被首次报道,导致700多人死亡。自2012年以来已经导致800多人死亡的中东呼吸综合征(MERS)也是由一种冠状病毒引起的。

 

“Thelesson we’ve learned is coronavirus infections are serious and one of thenewest and biggest global health threats,” said Dr. Peter Hotez, a vaccinescientist in Houston. He added that it’s less challenging to develop a vaccinefor coronaviruses than for other viruses such as HIV or influenza. If a vaccineis developed, he said, health care workers might be among the first to receiveit because they are exposed to infected patients.
“我们得到的教训是,冠状病毒感染是严重的,是最新和最大的全球健康威胁之一,”休斯敦疫苗科学家彼得·霍特兹博士说。他补充道,开发一种针对冠状病毒的疫苗,其难度低于针对艾滋病或流感等其它病毒的疫苗。他说,如果研制出了疫苗,医护人员可能是最先接种的人,因为他们接触受感染的病人。
 
It is“remarkable” that scientists are able to start developing a vaccine for a virusthat was identified less than a month ago, he said. He credited Chineseresearchers, who quickly sequenced (确定…的化学结构序列) and published the virus’s genome(基因组).“With SARS, it took almost a year to be able to identify and map the fullgenetic code,” he said. “Now we’re doing this in just a few weeks.” 
他说,科学家能够开始研制不到一个月前才被发现的病毒的疫苗,这是“非凡的”。他将这归功于中国的研究人员,因为他们迅速地对病毒的基因组进行了排序并公布了结果。他说:“当时的SARS,我们花了将近一年的时间来识别和绘制完整的基因序列。现在我们只用了几周的时间。”

 

2. 新型冠状病毒,你需要知道些啥

——英国《卫报》

This isan outbreak of disease that started in Wuhan, one of the central Chinese cities.It’s caused by a novel corona virus that means it’s brand-new. So new thatactually it doesn’t have a name yet.
这次疾病爆发始于武汉,中国的一个中部城市。它是由新型冠状病毒引起的,这意味着它是全新的,新到实际上还没来得及给它起名。
What are the symptoms?
It’s froma family called the corona viruses. The symptoms of this illness are prettymundane (平凡的)on the face of it: it’s a dry cough fever and then breathing problems. It seemsquite mild in lots of people, and probably those people don’t end up inhospital at all.
症状是哪些?
它来自冠状病毒科。从表面看,这种疾病症状相当普通:干咳、发烧和呼吸困难。对很多人来说,症状轻微,这些人甚至可能都不用住院。
We onlyknow about the more severe cases, which is where people have gone on to developviral pneumonia, and those people obviously end up in hospital, and all thedeaths have been amongst those people.
我们只知道那些更严重的病例,即继续发展成病毒性肺炎的病例,那些人显然最终要住院,而所有死亡的人都在这些人里。
Where have cases beenconfirmed so far?
Thisbrand-new corona virus came from animals, and it’s believed that the source wasactually a seafood market in Wuhan, which also sells wild animals. So far asfar as we know all the cases have come out of Wuhan. So some of these peopleare in places like Thailand and Japan, but they haven’t picked it up there.They actually got it in Wuhan and then they traveled.
目前病例确认在哪里?
这种全新的冠状病毒来自动物,据信来源于一个武汉的海鲜市场,这个市场也出售野生动物。据我们所知,目前所有的病例都来自武汉。其中一些人在泰国和日本,但他们并不是在那里感染上病毒的。实际上他们在武汉感染上病毒,然后旅行。
… andthose who have died tend actually to have underlying conditions as they say,that they’re frail, they may have heart disease or cancer already, and sothey’re vulnerable. Basically their immune systems are not very robust, andthey’re gong to find it very hard to fight off a virus.
……而那些死亡的人往往都患有基础病:他们虚弱,他们也许已患有心脏疾病或者癌症,因此很脆弱。基本上来说,他们的免疫系统不是很强壮,所以会发现他们很难抵抗病毒。
How is this virustransmitted?
We’veonly just discovered that the new corona virus is actually transmitted from oneperson to another. It was hoped at first actually that it just came fromanimals as all corona viruses do. But now it looks as though it is actuallypassed from one human being to another. So we’ve got people to peopletransmission, because the market has been closed for sometime, and there arecases in people who’ve never been near it.
这种病毒是如何传染的?
我们刚刚发现新型冠状病毒实际上是人传人。最初希望它实际上来自动物,就像所有冠状病毒那样。但是现在看来它是人传人。所以有人传人的感染,因为那家市场已关闭一段时间,而有些患者从未靠近过那里。
What treatment isavailable?

Sothere actually isn’t any treatment at the moment at all, because this is avirus. Antibiotics (抗生素) won’t work. They onlywork against bacteria not viruses. So really you want to know antiviraltreatment but none of the flu drugs that we got, and we have got a couple of thosewill work on this. A corona virus is differentfrom a flu virus, so there actually isn’t any treatment at the moment at all.

有无现成治疗方法?
实际上,目前没有任何治疗方法,因为这是病毒,抗生素无效,他们只对细菌有效,而不是病毒。所以要了解抗病毒治疗,但我们手头的流感药物,我们有的几种药物,没有一个对它起作用。冠状病毒不同于流感病毒,因此,目前没有任何治疗方法。
How serious is thisoutbreak compared to others in the past?
This oneis scary because it is a brand-new virus so we don’t know how it’s going tobehave. But I have to say, we perhaps ought to put it in the context of some ofthe other things. I went to Sierra Leone to cover the West Africa outbreak ofEbola (埃博拉)and that was killing more than half of all those people who were infected. SARSwhich was a novel corona virus just like this one back in 2002, did end upcausing a global panic.
和过去相比,这次爆发有多严重?
它很可怕,因为这是种全新的病毒,所以我们不知道它会如何变化。但是我得说,我们也许应和其他一些情况一起考虑。我去过西非塞拉利昂报道过埃博拉疫情,这种疾病使得一半的感染者死亡。2002年的SARS和这次一样,也是冠状病毒,最终导致全球恐慌。
And thatwas largely because nobody had ever seen it before, but also the death rate wasat around 10%. And here so far we’re talking about a death rate of 2%, which isa lot less and it does look as if many of those people actually have hadunderlying health problems, which would make it more likely that they woulddie. They could equally have died of flu, so you have to put it into that context,I think.
主要的原因是从未有人见过这种病毒,并且死亡率也在10%左右。到目前,新型冠状病毒的死亡率是2%,小的多,并且看起来死亡的人中许多实际上有其他健康基础病,这使他们更有可能死亡。他们同样可能死于流感,所以必须考虑这些情况。
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